Drink driving is a serious road safety issue. Drink drivers are at a much higher risk of being involved in any crash than sober drivers and have a correspondingly higher rate of involvement in fatal crashes than other drivers.
It's fun to socialise with your friends, but if you are drinking, the safest options are to catch public transport, get a lift with a sober friend, or stay overnight. Better still, if you plan to drive, don't drink.
Too many Canberrans are involved in alcohol-related crashes. Each year, alcohol contributes to about 25 per cent of road deaths in the ACT.
Alcohol affects your ability to be in control of your actions. If you drink then drive, you will be stopped!
Police conduct random breath testing to deter and detect drink drivers. ACT drivers can expect to be breath tested anywhere and at any time.
Facts about alcohol
The effects of alcohol can:
- make it hard for you to concentrate on your driving
- slow down your reaction times
- reduce your abiity to do more than one thing at a time
- affect your vision and hearing
- make you feel more confident, which may lead you to take more risks
- relax you, increasing your chances of falling asleep at the wheel
- make simple tasks more difficult
What is blood or breath alcohol concentration (BAC)?
Blood or breath alcohol concentration is a measurement of the amount of alcohol in your body.
- Blood alcohol concentration is measured in grams of alcohol per 100mL of blood.
- A measurement of 0.05 BAC means your body contains 0.05g of alcohol per 100mL of blood or 210L of exhaled breath.
- As soon as you start drinking, your BAC begins to rise.
- It takes 30 to 60 minutes after you have stopped drinking for your BAC to reach its highest concentration.
Factors which can affect your BAC include:
- how much alcohol you drink
- the time period over which you consume alcohol
- your muscle to fat ratio
- how long since you have last eaten
- your weight
- the health of your liver
- whether you regularly drink
- the type of drink you consume
What are the BAC levels in the ACT?
|Level 1||Less than 0.05g|
|Level 2||0.05g or more but less than 0.08g|
|Level 3||0.08g or more but less than 0.15g|
|Level 4||0.15g or more|
How much can I drink and still keep below 0.05?
As a general guide:
For men: No more than two standard drinks in the first hour and one standard drink each hour after that.
For women: No more than one standard drink each hour, less for smaller women.
Note: Drivers restricted to a zero alcohol concentration should not drink any alcohol before driving.
What is a standard drink?
Standard drinks all contain about the same amount (10 grams) of alcohol.
Examples of standard drinks
A- 1 middy of full strength beer (285 ml)
B- 1 glass of fortified wine (60 ml)
C- Approx. 1 nip of spirits (30 ml)
D- 1 can (375 ml) of low alcohol beer
E- Approx. 1 small glass of table wine (100 ml)
F- Approx. 1 schooner of low alcohol beer (425 ml)
Remember, the only thing that will reduce your BAC is time. It takes your liver about one hour to process the alcohol in one standard drink. Therefore, after a heavy night's drinking it is quite possible to be 0.05 or over the next morning. Coffee, cold showers, mint confectionery, vitamins, vomiting or exercise will not reduce your BAC any sooner.
What is my BAC level?
- The BAC for most drivers is 0.05g of alcohol in 100mL of blood or 210L of exhaled breath.
- The BAC for special drivers is zero. This means that it is an offence for a special driver to drive a motor vehicle if the person has any alcohol in his or her body.
- Higher penalties apply for different levels of alcohol concentration under the Act as people with a higher level of alcohol in their body pose a greater safety risk to themselves and other road users.
Who is a special driver?
- the holder of a learner, provisional, probationary or restricted driver or rider licence
- the holder of a foreign driver or rider licence from certain countries (see note 3 for details)
- the driver of a public passenger vehicle including a taxi, bus, hire car and restricted hire car
- the driver of a dangerous goods vehicle
- the driver of a heavy vehicle that has a GVM or GCM of more than 15 tonnes
- a driver who is learning to drive a heavy vehicle over 4.5 tonnes GVM
- driver trainers while they are engaged in driver training (see note 4)
- an unlicensed driver
It's important to check whether you are a special driver, as special drivers are subject to a zero BAC.
1. The zero BAC only applies to heavy vehicle drivers when they are driving a heavy vehicle that has a GVM or GCM of more than 15 tonnes. So if they are driving their private car or some other private vehicle, they are subject to the same BAC of less than 0.05 that applies to other full licence holders.
2. The zero BAC only applies to public passenger vehicle drivers when they are driving a public passenger vehicle (a taxi, bus, hire car or restricted hire car). So if they are driving their private car or some other private vehicle, they are subject to the same BAC of less than 0.05 that applies to other full licence holders.
3. Drivers who hold a foreign driver or rider licence from a country that is not recognised by Austroads as having licences that correspond to Australian licences are 'special drivers'. The countries that are recognised by Austroads are: United States of America, Canada, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Japan, Singapore, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Isle of Man, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Croatia, Jersey, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Guernsey and Malta. Drivers from recognised countries that hold the equivalent of an ACT full licence are not 'special drivers'.
4. 'Driver trainers' includes driving instructors, heavy vehicle driver assessors and any person who is supervising a learner driver (including parents and other unpaid persons).
Can I be charged with a drink driving offence if I have consumed a cough mixture that contains alcohol or food that contains alcohol?
It is unlikely that food or medicine, consumed in normal quantities, would produce a BAC reading above zero. However, the ACT's laws provide a specific defence for a person to whom a zero BAC applies, if the person registers a BAC below 0.02. The person can raise, as a defence, that the BAC reading is the result of the consumption of food, medicine etc.
When can I be breath tested?
- The police can breath test drivers as part of random breath testing (RBT) at the roadside.
- They can test anyone in a car after an accident if it is not clear who was driving the car when the accident happened.
- They can also test people suspected of committing a culpable driving offence.
- If a breath screening test indicates the person has the prescribed alcohol concentration for that person, the police will take that person into custody for a breath analysis. This procedure is usually done at a police station.
When will I be asked to give a blood sample?
- You may be required to give a blood sample if you cannot give a breath sample for health reasons, or because a breath analysis machine is not available or you have been admitted to hospital following a crash.
What happens if I refuse to give a sample of breath or blood?
- It is an offence to refuse to give a sample of breath or blood. The maximum penalty for a first offence is a fine of 30 penalty units and imprisonment for six months. The maximum penalty for a repeat offence is a fine of 30 penalty units and imprisonment for 12 months.
What happens if I am caught drink driving?
- You may be arrested and charged or summonsed to appear in court to answer charges for a drink driving offence.
- You may wish to obtain independent legal advice before your trial, as serious penalties, including imprisonment, can apply to drink driving offences.
- If you have exceeded your limit by 0.05g of alcohol or more, the police must give you an immediate licence suspension notice.
What is an immediate licence suspension notice and how will it affect my driver licence?
In the ACT, a police officer is required to, issue a suspension notice, if they believe on reasonable grounds that a person has committed an immediate suspension offence. An immediate suspension offence includes:
- Driving at level 2 to 4 (over 0.05g) if a special driver (e.g. public passenger driver, learner, provisional) except if a driver trainer
- Driving at level 3 or 4 (over 0.1g (does not cover all of level 3))
- Driving under the influence of intoxicating liquor or a drug (BAC level not a determining factor)
- Refusal offences (eg. refusing to provide a sample)
The maximum period of any suspension for an alleged alcohol or other drug related driving offence is 3 months.
This power extends to driver licences issued in another jurisdiction. An ACT driver issued with a suspension notice under NSW law would be suspended in the ACT and if they drove would be committing the offence of driving while suspended (section 32 (2) (a), Road Transport (Driver Licensing) Act 1999). The penalty for this offence in the ACT for a first offender is a maximum court fine of 50 penalty units and/or imprisonment for six months and an automatic disqualification period of three months. For a repeat offender a maximum court fine of 100 penalty units and/or imprisonment for 12 months and an automatic disqualification period of 12 months.
It is also an offence to apply for a driver licence while suspended or omit to mention in the application, the suspension (section 32 (2) (b), Road Transport (Driver Licensing) Act 1999). The penalty for this offence for a first offender is a maximum court fine of 50 penalty units and/or imprisonment for six months and an automatic disqualification period of three months. For a repeat offender the maximum court fine is 100 penalty units and/or imprisonment for 12 months and an automatic disqualification period of 12 months.
- The period of licence suspension must be deducted from any period of licence disqualification that a court may order as part of your sentence if you are convicted of a drink driving offence or refuse breath/blood test offence.
- You may apply to the Magistrates Court for a stay of the suspension notice.
- If the court grants a stay, your licence will no longer be suspended.
I have a previous drink driving conviction - what will happen if I re-offend?
- Repeat drink drivers face higher penalties under the Act, including longer automatic disqualification periods.
- If you are caught drink driving on or after 1 December 2010 and you are a repeat offender you will not be eligible to apply for a restricted licence while you are disqualified.
What penalties can a court impose for drink driving?
The table below summarises the penalties for drink driving offences.
Penalties for drink driving in the ACT
Alcohol concentration (BAC)
Minimum disqualification period
Default disqualification period
More than zero grams but less than .05 grams
- Fine not exceeding 5 penalty units
- Fine not exceeding 10 penalty units
1 month 3 months
- 3 months - 12 months
.05 grams or more but less than .08 grams
- Fine not exceeding 5 penalty units
- Fine not exceeding 10 penalty units
- 2 months - 3 months
- 6 months - 12 months
.08 grams or more but less than .15 grams
- Fine not exceeding 10 penalty units or imprisonment for a period not exceeding 6 months, or both Repeat offence - Fine not exceeding 10 penalty or imprisonment for a period not exceeding 6 months, or both
- 3 months - 6 months
- 12 months - 3 years
.15 grams or more
- Fine not exceeding 15 penalty units or imprisonment for a period not exceeding 9 months, or both Repeat offence - Fine not exceeding 20 penalty units or imprisonment for a period not exceeding 12 months, or both
- 6 months - 12 months
- 3 years - 5 years
Note 1: For some offences, different penalties may apply to special drivers who are driver trainers.
Note 2: A level 1 Alcohol Concentration only applies to Special Drivers, such as taxi, rideshare, bus, light rail, hire car, learner, provisional, probationary, restricted, heavy vehicle, dangerous goods vehicle etc.
Note 3: A penalty unit is defined in section 133 of the Legislation Act 2001 (ACT).
- In addition, under the Crimes (Sentencing) Act 2005, a court can make a good behaviour order or a reparation order.
Where do I go if I need help to address my drinking?
- The ACT Department of Health's Alcohol and Drug Program 24 Hour Intake and Helpline can assist in referring drink drivers with alcohol dependence issues to treatment providers. Please click this link: ACT Health
- One phone call is all it takes to access help - the phone number is 6207 9977.